Because many states fail to meet mandated targets, the first set of clean air act amendments is adopted. This act implements a comprehensive program for reducing air pollution focusing on the reduction of ambient that which is present in the. While the provisions of the clean air act of 1970 were valid, the problem keeping it from reaching its full potential is the lack of government enforcement. In the united states, between 1900 and 1970, emissions of the six. Clean air act extension of 1970 mnn mother nature network. Under the clean air act of 1970 and 1977, the epa set emissions limits for seven hazardous pollutantsberyllium, mercury, vinyl chloride, asbestos, benzene, radionuclides, and arsenic. The act was passed in 1963, but important and major amendments were added to the original act in 1970 and 1990. They were concerned with states that were not achieving national objectives as to auto emissions and measures to prevent air quality deterioration in areas where the air had previously been clean. Major sources are defined as a stationary source or group of stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons per year or more of a hazardous air. The clean air act whose basic structure was established in 1970, and then amended in 1977 and 1990is a united states federal law designed to protect human health and the environment from the effects of air pollution. With the 1990 clean air act amendments, congress revised the epas hazardous air pollutant program to a technologybased regulatory system. When the clean air act first became law in 1970, the senate passed it without a single nay vote.
The principal statute addressing air quality concerns, the clean air act was first enacted in 1955, with major revisions in 1970, 1977, and 1990. The first legislation involving air pollution was enacted in 1955, and authorized funds for air pollution research. The actwhich underwent major revisions in 1990 and 2003deals with ambient air. Filing whistleblower complaints under the clean air act employees are protected from retaliation for reporting alleged violations regarding air emissions from area, stationary, and mobile sources. I would prefer one comprehensive clean air act article with a subsection for each amendment. Following promulgation of these or other clean air act regulations, congress could address the issues.
May 24, 2012 the donora smog disaster and the clean air act of 1970. D if, after the date of the enactment of the clean air act amendments of 1990, the administrator modifies the method of determining compliance with the national primary ambient air quality standard, a design value or other indicator comparable to 0. In the united states, the clean air acts include the air pollution control act of 1955, clean air act of 1963, air quality act of 1967, the clean air act extension of 1970, and clean air act amendments in 1977 and 1990. The obvious counterpoint would be that they were able to use new technology to respond to the restrictions then, so why not now. However, since the clean air act caa2 and the clean air. The plain english guide to the clean air act united states of. The clean air act of 1970 represented a major shift in federal government responsibility for limiting the exposure of u. I believe that congress enactment of the 1970 amendments to. Clean air act issues in the 116th congress crs reports. Evolution of the clean air act overview of the clean air. In 2004, epa took the position that it had no power under the federal clean air act to regulate greenhouse gas ghg pollution, forcing massachusetts, california and other states to file suit. Clean air act caa whistleblower protection program. The basic framework of the law and its public health objective have remained intact. Air quality, infant mortality, and the clean air act of 1970 kenneth y.
Apr 02, 2011 congress passed the core provisions of the clean air act in 1970. Section 112 of the clean air act addresses emissions of hazardous air pollutants. The federal clean air act california air resources board. Included among other provisions were those regulating the emissions from all new motor vehicles imported into or ex. Clean air act of 1963, 1970 and 1990 definition and summary of the clean air act summary and definition. The law was amended in 1977 and again in 1990 to extend deadlines but also to specify new strategies for cleaning up the air. Bis 2ethylhexylphthalate dehp bis chloromethylether. Its success or failure has obvious consequences for the quality of the air we breathe. Its a big job, and although a great deal of progress has been made, it will take time to make the air healthy throughout the country. Many credit the literary works of henry david thoreau or teddy roosevelts patronage of national parks as the roots of the green movement in the us.
Covered employees the clean air act caa prohibits employers from retaliating against employees for engaging in protected activities pertaining to. Benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1970 to 1990. Reductions in particulate air pollution alone, thanks in large part to the clean air act, have added 1. October 15, 1997 source for information on benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1970 to 1990. The clean air act gave the federal environmental protection agency epa the power it needed to take effective action to fight environmental pollution. Economics of education, health care, health economics, public economics, environment and energy economics. The clean air act is the law that defines epas responsibilities for protecting and improving the nations air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The government credits the clean air act with significant reductions in air pollutants.
In principle, it was a law that would show excellent results. Sep 20, 2012 the 1990 clean air act amendments revised section 112 to require issuance of technologybased standards for major sources and certain area sources. I propose merging clean air act 1970 and clean air act 1990 into this page. It required that emissions from new automobiles be reduced by. The last major change in the law, the clean air act amendments of 1990, was enacted by congress in 1990. This legislation authorized the development of comprehensive federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both stationary industrial sources and mobile sources. The plain english guide to the clean air act pdf epa. The 1963 clean air act was amended in 1970 and 1990 and the law therefore consists of three sets of federal programs to establish air quality goals and to impose pollution control. The act was updated in 1977 and dramatically in 1990. It is one of the united states first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. Only one representative had voted against the bill. A recent epa analysis of the clean air act amendments of 1990 caaa found that the benefits from caaa regulation far outweigh the costs by a factor of 30 to 1 with highbenefit estimates exceeding costs 90 to 1 the benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1990 to 2020.
In 1970 congress designed the clean air act to combat a variety of air pollution problems, and to tackle emerging pollution threats such as public health, national welfare, toxic air pollutants, acid rain, protection of the ozone layer, and regional haze. Among other things, this law authorizes epa to establish national ambient air quality standards naaqs to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants. Clean air act the clean air act is a united states federal law enacted by congress, and signed by president lyndon b. The clean air act has helped change the way many of us work or do business. All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act july 14, 1955, the clean air act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of pub. Those of us who had a hand in drafting the 1970 amendments therefore can take satisfaction because that legislation has had a positive impact on our. The primary goal of the clean air act is ensuring public health, but the act has a secondary effect of improving the environment by regulating the production of some greenhouse gases. The clean air act caa is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Air quality, infant mortality, and the clean air act of 1970. Americans are breathing easier and living healthier lives since the clean air act was enacted in 1970. Epa claimed that the clean air act prohibited it from considering costs when establishing national air.
Clean air act extension of 1970 the clean air act extension, written by maine sen. The 1970 clean air act launched an ambitious set of federal programs to establish air quality goals and to impose pollution control technology requirements on. The evidence supports the conclusion that air pollution has a causal effect on infant health and that the 1970 clean air act provided significant health benefits. Overall, the estimates imply that at least 1,300 fewer infants died from 197172 than would have in the absence of the clean air act regulations. No employer may discharge any employee or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee or any person acting pursuant to a request of. Protecting the environment, politics, pollution, and federal policy. Dense, visible smog in many of the nations cities and industrial centers helped to prompt passage of the 1970 legislation at the height of the national environmental movement. The enactment of the clean air act of 1970 1970 caa resulted in a major shift in the federal governments role in air pollution control. Nothing in the clean air act amendments of 1977 pub. It required that emissions from new automobiles be reduced by 90% during the period from 1971. The clean air act the clean air act of 1970 was created with recognition of the fact that pollution sometimes crosses the boundary lines of local jurisdictions and extends into two or more states. The 1970 clean air act required states to develop state implementation plans for how they would meet new national ambient air quality standards by 1977. Due to inconsistencies among state air programs, uncertainties in the scientific bases for the various criteria, and the jurisdictional obstacles to resolving regional and transboundary air quality concerns, congress strengthened the federal role in air pollution control in the clean air act of 1970.
A summary of the act and its major requirements congressional research service 3 the 1990 amendments also authorized appropriations for clean air programs through fy1998. By the late 1960s, the federal effort still was not felt to be enough to reduce air pollution to healthy levels, and the public wanted the federal government to take more action. This report summarizes the clean air act and its major regulatory requirements. Clean air act requirements and history overview of the. Legislation passed since then has made several minor changes. Nov, 2019 the clean air act is the name of any of several pieces of legislation aimed at reducing smog and other types of air pollution.
On november 15, 1990, president bush signed into law the clean air act amendments of 1990, the first comprehensive changes to the act in years. Congress passed the core provisions of the clean air act in 1970. Basic elements of the act include national ambient air quality standards for major air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants standards, state attainment plans. Oct 04, 2016 historians of the environmental movement are likely to peg earth day 1970 as a key turning point in the american publics consciousness about environmental problems. The federal water pollution control act amendments of 1961. Clean air act 1970 with 62 percent less pollution, americans are living healthier, longer lives. C for which air quality criteria had not been issued before the date of enactment of the clean air amendments of 1970, but for which he plans to issue air quality criteria under this section.
This years historic supreme court case pit industry against environmentalists, but the role of economics in regulatory policy was and still is on trial. It was followed eight years later by legislation to control air pollution. The effect of the clean air act on environmental quality core. A summary of the act and its major requirements congressional research service summary this report summarizes the clean air act and its major regulatory requirements. Rogers epa journal januaryfebruary 1990 historians of the environmental movement are likely to peg earth day 1970 as a key turning point in the american publics consciousness about environmental problems. The clean air act is the name of any of several pieces of legislation aimed at reducing smog and other types of air pollution. Chay and michael greenstone august 2003 we thank david card, doug almond, josh. Although the 1990 clean air act is a federal law covering the entire country, the states do much of the work to carry out the act.
The 1970 extension is sometimes called the muskie act because of the central role maine senator edmund muskie played in drafting the content of the bill. The 1990 clean air act amendments revised section 112 to first require issuance of. It requires the environmental protection agency epa to develop and enforce regulations to protect the. I believe that congress enactment of the 1970 amendments to the clean air act a few months later was an equally significant landmark. Congress established much of the basic structure of the clean air act in 1970, and made major revisions in 1977 and 1990. Epa456k07001 environmental protection research triangle park, nc april 2007. Chay and michael greenstone august 2003 we thank david card, doug almond, josh angrist, gary becker, david cutler, john dinardo, carlos. Economics of education, health care, health economics, public economics, environment and energy economics we examine the effects of total suspended particulates tsps air pollution on infant health using the air quality. Jun 29, 2010 109yearold veteran and his secrets to life will make you smile short film showcase duration. Early implementation of the clean air act of 1970 in. Clean air act text overview of the clean air act and air. Jun 01, 2015 authorized the establishment of national ambient air quality standards established requirements for state implementation plans to achieve the national ambient air quality standards authorized the. Benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1970 to 1990government report excerpt by.
In 1990, congress dramatically revised and expanded. The impact of the clean air act pubmed central pmc. Policy evaluation even though the deadlines originally imposed in the 1970 amendments ultimately were not met, the amendments unquestionably succeeded in fostering a profound attitude shift. The amendments in 1970 were an entirely rewritten version of the original clean air act. History and structure of the clean air act theodore l. The act and its federal bully pulpit led to the expanded influence or in some cases the creation of local agencies such as the california air resources board to administer the clean air act. Pdf enforcing the clean air act of 1970 researchgate. Benzene including benzene from gasoline benzotrichloride. The 1970 clean air act amendments were a watershed that paved the way for the widespread consensus in our country today that air pollution control must be a top priority of the federal government.
Edmund muskie and signed into law by president nixon on dec. Early implementation of the clean air act of 1970 in california. Prior to 1990, caa established a riskbased program under which only a few standards were developed. This was the most recent of three significant development in environmental legislation in years, along with the clean air act of 1970 and the 1977 clean air act amendments. Original list of hazardous air pollutants technology. The clean air act was major legislation passed to control air pollution in the united states. Johnson to control air pollution on a national level.
The benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1970 to 1990. What are some pros and cons for the clean air act of 1970. An act to amend the clean air act to provide for a more effective program to improve the quality of the nations air. Bank holding company act amendments of 1970 pl 086463 bank merger act, 1960 pl 089356 bank merger amendments, 1966. Nrdc legislative facts the clean air act is a genuine american success story and one of the most effective tools in u. Clean air act united states house of representatives. The federal clean air act fcaa is the federal law passed in 1970, and last amended in 1990, which forms the basis for the national air pollution control effort. It was amended first by the clean air act amendment in 1966, then by the clean air act extension of 1970 84 stat.
A history of the clean air act and environmental protection agency 2, 3key federal legislation related to clean air is summarized below table i. Supreme court ruled that greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the clean air act. The clean air act amendments of 1990 were signed into law as p. The first substantive legislative development in support of a stronger federal presence in air pollution control was the passage of the motor vehicle safety act on march 11, 1970. Clean air act of 1963, 1970 and 1990 american historama. The 1970 act required states to enforce the clean air act. The clean water act the clean water act of 1972 set minimum standards for water purity in a. The major provisions of the clean air act of 1970 were summarized and their implementations discussed. Chay michaelgreenstone workingpaper0408 august2003 roome52251 50memorialdrive cambridge,ma02142. This act may be cited as the clean air act of 1963. The direct costs of implementing the clean air act from 1970 to 1990, including annual compliance expen. Today, particulate air pollution is not a major problem in most parts of the united states. The donora smog disaster and the clean air act of 1970. Wikipedia is not a dictionary, and these articles arent very long or detailed, so i dont think each amending act needs its own article.422 9 1214 794 454 1250 838 1312 689 359 1596 662 1029 25 1191 703 15 1406 606 1323 1103 667 1112 537 881 1509 574 309 1026 1469 270 1463 788 845